Blog Arşivi Molchem Technologies

What is Lime?

(CaO) is obtained in the nature by heating of limestone (CaCO3) in high temperature kilns resulting quicklime.


What is Hydrated Lime?

When the quicklime reacts with water, it turns into an hydrated lime (Ca (OH) 2) in the powder form , which is called hydrated lime.


Application Areas: Construction sector, Mining Sector, Paper Industry, Chemistry Industry, Flue gas cleaning, Drinking water, Waste water treatment


What is Quicklime?

It is called quicklime which is obtained by heating in high temperature kilns.


  1. Quicklime ( CL 80 Q / 90 micron )
  2. Quicklime ( CL 80 Q / 3-10 mm )
  3. Quicklime ( CL 80 Q / 10-60 mm )


Application Areas: Iron&steel industry, Construction Sector, Paper Industry, Chemistry Industry, Flue gas desulfurization, Water treatment,Mining sector, Waste water treatment, Treatment sludge reclamation and Glass production.

Micronized Gypsum

We’re selling micronized plaster.

Physical Structure           White crystalline powder

Solubility             At 20 ° C in water, 2 g / l

Specific Weight                2.32 g/cm3

Fineness (µ)      20-100

Purity (CaSO4.2H2O)     > 90%

Humidity             <%1

Packaging           Bigbag

Industry uses

  • Adhesive chemicals
  • Agricultural chemicals (non-pesticidal)
  • Fillers
  • Ion exchange agents

Other Uses

  • Agricultural products (non-pesticidal)
  • Building / Construction Materials / Wood and Engineered Wood Products
  • Cement industry; Portland-cement retarder
  • Gypsum industry; gypsum board, bond and plaster
  • Polishing powder
  • Boards (white pigment, filler, drier) Paper filling, surface coating)
  • Drying of industrial gases, solid materials and many organic liquids

Nickel Foam for Battery Cathode Substrate

As the importance of lithium ion batteries increases, the different components are started to be used in them. One of the important materials that is in lithium ion batteries is current collectors. Current collectors are important because they have a role in electrochemical energy storage.


The important thing for a current collector is to keep their internal resistance low in order to improve the electrochemical properties of this kind of electrochemical energy storage systems. Also a good current collector must have high conductivity, chemical stability during electrolyte and the potential window and mechanical strength. According to the studies made in this field it has been proved that porous materials which can be used as current corrector give good results in lithium ion batteries.


One of the materials that can be used as current collector in lithium ion battery systems is nickel foam. Nickel Foam for Battery Cathode Substrate has low density and porous structure with typically 75–95% of the volume consisting of void spaces, which means that is a selectable material as current collector. Nickel foam can be used in many various functions in energy absorption and rechargeable battery applications. According to the studies where nickel foam used states that nickel foam is a good current collector in alkaline supercapacitors as long as we subtract the contribution from the nickel foam to get correct specific capacitances of the active material.


So we can say that nickel foam is a good material to be used as a current collector in lithium ion batteries with the properties of high conductivity and 3D interconnected structure.

Electrolyte Lithium Hexafluorophosphate for Lithium-ion Batteries

Lithium hexafluorophosphate is an inorganic compound with the formula LiPF6. Lithium hexafluorophosphate which is soluble in non aqueous polar solvents is an important chemical for the production of lithium ion batteries.


Lithium hexafluorophosphate is one of the most used electrolyte salt in the production of lithium ion batteries. Electrolyte Lithium Hexafluorophosphate for Lithium-ion Batteries has the ability of dissolving in binary and ternary solvents which cyclic carbonates and linear carbonates can be given as example. After lithium hexafluorophosphate dissolves in these solvents, it shows high electrolytic conductivity and thermal stability which is a desired property for lithium ion batteries.


There are many metal salts that are used in lithium ion battery applications but we can say that lithium hexafluorophosphate is the best one. Lithium hexafluorophosphate has different balanced properties to be used in lithium ion battery applications. For example, lithium hexafluorophosphate has a lower conductivity than lithium hexafluoroarsenate in the commonly used carbonate solvent mixtures, a lower ionic mobility than lithium tetrafluoroborate, a lower thermal stability than most of the other salts, a lower anodic stability than lithium hexafluoroarsenate and lithium hexafluoroantimonate (LiAsF6), and a lower chemical stability toward ambient moisture than lithium perchlorate and lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate.


Lithium hexafluorophosphate gives the best results among the salts given above. These properties make lithium hexafluorophosphate the most used chemical in lithium ion battery applications. In 1990, lithium hexafluorophosphate was used by Sony in the first generation lithium ion cell, and since then, its position in the lithium ion industry has remained unchallenged.

Nickel Tabs For Lithium Ion Battery Applications

Lithium ion batteries becomes a very important technology for our daily life. They are widely used in mobile phones, laptops and electrical vehicles.


In current lithium-ion battery manufacturing for automotive, different sizes and shapes of cells are being manufactured. The difference between electronic devices like mobile phones or laptops, automotive battery packs consists of a large number of battery cells, sometimes several hundreds to meet desired power and capacity needs. As a result, a significant amount of joining such as welding is needed to deliver electricity in a battery pack.


It is not possible to say that it is easy to join all of these battery cells. Also when we think of the harsh environment of an automobile expose like vibration, severe temperature, and possible crash, all of these can affect the performance of these batteries.


The scientists shows a great effort to get better performance from lithium ion batteries in terms of cell material, design, safety, and performance. One of the topics that is studied on is welding process and battery tabs.


First, lithium-ion batteries use highly conductive materials such as aluminum and copper for electrodes and tabs but they are suitable for resistance welding due to their high thermal and electrical conductivities. Nowadays, nickel is the most commonly used materials for battery tab. Nickel alloys are known as electrically and thermally resistive and relatively easy to weld. A study on the parallel gap resistance welding of Ni-plated copper and Ni-plated steel showed that Nickel coating on a conductive material could help improve joint quality while keeping electrical resistance between the cells low.

Copper Foils for Lithium Ion Batteries

In the past two decades with the prevalence of portable consumer electronics, the demand for rechargeable energy storage sources of high energy density and low weight has been growing rapidly. Currently larger applications such as zero emission electric vehicles and satellites put up even more stringent requirements for energy storage devices in both energy density and power density. In all of these applications high performance batteries are more and more desired.


Lithium ion batteries are good materials for this high performance demand. There are different methods and chemicals for the production of lithium ion batteries. A lithium ion battery cell is composed of two electrodes, which are the anode and cathode, a separator, and an electrolyte. Generally, the electrodes are fabricated by applying coating slurry onto a metallic foil. One of the metallic foils that are used in lithium ion battery anode parts is copper foils.


Among different conductive substrates copper is an excellent choice for its high electrical and thermal conductivity, combined with a low economical cost. Copper Foils for Lithium Ion Batteries can be used as current collector in lithium ion batteries. The important property of copper foils is they show high conductivity to minimize battery impedance. Copper foils show heat resistance and it is a desired property for a lithium ion battery to have a long cycle life. Also, copper foils show good tensile strength and elongation properties which prevents cracking when they used in anode part for coating purposes in lithium ion batteries.

Lithium Titanate Oxide Micron Powder (LTO) for Li-ion Battery Anode

As all we may know lithium ion batteries include cathode and anode parts. One of the most used material for anode part is graphitic carbon. Graphitic carbon is chosen for long cycle life and low cost. But there are some problems with graphitic carbon such as safety and low lithium ion diffusivity in the graphite lattice.


In the studies related to this field it was found that lithium titanate oxide which has the chemical formula of Li4Ti5O12 can be used as alternative anode material to graphitic carbon. Lithium Titanate Oxide Micron Powder (LTO) for Li-ion Battery Anode shows stable charge/discharge platform and possesses excellent cycling stability and unique safety characteristic owing to its negligible volume change and high redox potential upon Li-ion intercalation/deintercalation. Of course, the studies are going on to improve the performance of lithium titanate oxide as anode materials.


However, coarse lithium titanate shows poor rate performance due to its low electronic conductivity and sluggish lithium ion diffusivity. In some cases, especially when aging at elevated temperature or cycling in a long-term regime, gas generation frequently occurs in lithium titanate-based batteries.


In past decades, many efforts have been devoted to overcoming these problems and significant advancements have been achieved, which make lithium titanate viable for practical application in batteries for various electrical energy storage, such as electric/hybridelectric/plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/HEV/PHEV), grid load leveling, integration of renewable energy sources, etc.

Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR) Binder for Li-ion Battery Anode Materials

Lithium ion batteries are widely used in consumer electronics like laptops and cellular phones. Since lithium ion batteries produced, there have been many technological developments to increase their performance. One of the most important issues for lithium ion batteries is to work on low temperatures for the applications in aerospace, military and electrical vehicles. In the studies related to this topic it is widely observed that the insertion and extraction of lithium is more difficult at low temperatures.


For this purpose, some polymers were studied on and it was seen that most polymers at room temperature show the familiar polymeric properties of material flexibility and high resistance to cracking. But as the temperature decreases, these polymers become hard and brittle. So, it can be said that a poorly chosen binder system may cause impact damage to the electrode, like electrode cracking, peeling of the structure and manufacturing imperfections.


To solve this problem styrene-butadiene rubber/carboxymethylcellulose (SBR/CMC) has been studied in silicon-based electrodes to improve durability at low temperatures and cycle stability. For a SBR/CMC-based anode, interactionsbetween the carboxylic acid in the CMC and the hydroxyl groups in the Si-C silicon composite can form chemical networks on the surface of silicon. So, it is obvious that styrene butadiene rubber binder can be useful for you for using in lithium ion battery applications.

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Condensed Liquid Binder for Li-ion Battery

In lithium ion batteries it is very important to choose a good binder for the electrodes. There are some requirements that the binder has to meet to have durability and long cycle life. The binder should be chemically inert and electrochemically stable to get the best performance from lithium ion batteries. The other important point is that these properties should be gotten by lower amounts of binders.


One of these binders that meet the requirements is Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Condensed Liquid Binder for Li-ion Battery. PTFE is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications. PTFE is a fluorocarbon solid, as it is a high-molecular-weight compound consisting of carbon and fluorine. PTFE is hydrophobic material; so, it does not interact with water or water containing substances because of the London forces due to high electronegativity of fluorine.


PTFE binders has a CF2-CF2 unit which demonstrates excellent chemical stability for Li-Ion battery applications. PTFE condensed liquid binder is also environmentally friendly. In this binder water is used as solvent that is not harmful to health. PTFE has excellent chemical resistance. PTFE binders also have high heat and cold resistance. It provides high resistance to fire and also it has low water absorption. PTFE is also resistant to UV rays (ultraviolet) and it has good weather resistance, low friction coefficient.

Conductive Carbon Black for Lithium Ion Battery Applications

Nowadays there is a rapid development in lithium ion batteries because of their usage in electronics like mobile phones and electric vehicles. There are basically anode and cathode parts of lithium ion batteries and when we look at the cathode part we can see that it consists of particles of active material and inactive materials. For inactive materials we can give conductive additives as an example.


Conductive additive plays a role in increasing in the electric conductivity. For conductive additives carbon black can be given as an example. Conductive Carbon Black for Lithium Ion Battery Applications optimizes the electrical conductivity of the positive electrode but is not involved in the electrochemical redox process in lithium ion battery.


Actually the main duty of carbon black in lithium ion battery is to contribute to enhancing the cathode cyclability by filling the free spaces in between the particles of active material. So by this action the electrode conductivity increases.


Carbon black is a good choice to be used as conductive material in lithium ion batteries due to their low cost, low weight, high chemical inertness and property of being nontoxic. Also carbon black provides higher battery capacity and rate capability. To have a higher battery stability and high voltage charging for high energy carbon black will be a good choice. In some studies it has been observed that carbon black improves the battery cycle life. Since carbon black has low weight, you may load higher solids which enables higher coating speeds and this reduces battery manufacturing cost.

PVDF Binder for Li-ion Battery Electrodes

Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is a highly non-reactive thermoplastic fluoropolymer produced by the polymerization of vinylidene difluoride. PVDF is a specialty plastic used in applications needing the highest purity, as well as resistance to solvents, acids and hydrocarbons. PVDF is used as piping products, sheet, tubing, films, plate and an insulator for premium wire. PVDF is used in many different areas like in semiconductors, madical and defense industries. One of the important area that PVDF is used is lithium ion batteries as binder.


In lithium ion batteries the binder can be considered as a key component . The major function of the binders in lithium ion batteries is to act as an effective dispersion agent to connect the electrode species together and then steadily adhere them to the current collectors.


PVDF is one of the most commonly binders used for cathode of lithium ion batteries because of its superior electrochemical and thermal stability and good adhesion between the current collectors and electrode films.


By the adhesion between the current collectors and electrode films obtained by PVDF Binder for Li-ion Battery Electrodes the longer cycle life and higher energy density can be obtained at even lower PVDF binder addition. Also the polar functional groups in PVDF binder result in lower internal energy. Long‐term stability can be ensured by the PVDF’s excellent chemical resistance in the aggressive environment of lithium ion batteries, which includes organic carbonates and lithium salts.

Lanthanum Titanate Sputtering Targets and Applications

The lanthanum titanate is a chemical compound which consist of the metals of lanthanum and titanium and oxygen. Lanthanum titanate has a good thermal stability at elevated temperatures and low dielectric loss at microwave frequencies. These properties makes it useful as a dielectric material applied to high frequency because of its thermal stability at elevated temperatures and low dielectric loss at microwave frequencies.


Lanthanum titanate having pyrochlore structure has good electrical, optical and catalytic properties and the films obtained by lanthanum titanate sputtering targets has been widely used as a high frequency capacitor material at high temperature, and also for production microwave dielectric resonator oscillator, microwave integrated circuit substrates and the like.


The films obtained by lanthanum titanate sputtering targets gives the material stability at high temperatures and mechanical strength. Also you may obtain many different properties by doping a metal to lanthanum titanate. One of the metals that can be doped is lithium. Lithium doped lanthanum titanate can be used in lithium ion batteries. Doping lithium to lanthanum titanate increases the ionic conductivity and high rate ionic conductivity is a desired property for lithium ion batteries.

Nickel Vanadium Sputtering Targets and Applications

Generally nickel vanadium alloys can be obtained in composition of Ni:V is 1:7 in weight and this alloy have numerous applications in semiconductor industry. This alloy shows the electrical, chemical and optical properties of nickel. By adding vanadium to nickel, we can also get being non-ferromagnetic property from this alloy. By the property of being non-ferromagnetic nickel vanadium sputtering targets can be used in magnetron sputtering.

As we mentioned before nickel vanadium sputtering targets can be used in semiconductor applications. To obtain resistive films, diffusion barriers and prewetting layers nickel vanadium sputtering targets can be a good choice. The films which can be obtained by nickel vanadium alloy sputtering targetscan be used in adhesion layers for under-bump metals to support flip chips.

Thin films obtained by nickel vanadium sputtering targets can also be used as corrosion protecting metal barriers for the solar absorber aluminum substrate.

Niobium Sputtering Targets and Applications

Niobium is a chemical element with symbol Nb and atomic number 41. Niobium is a soft, grey, crystalline, ductile transition metal.


Niobium with the property of being a refractory metal has melting point and shows superior chemical resistance. That means niobium sputtering targets can be used to obtain thin films with high resistance to corrosion.


Another area that niobium sputtering targets can be used is superconducting devices. Niobium is one of the most used metals for obtaining superconducting thin films. So niobium sputtering targets can be used in superconducting hot electron bolometer and superconducting photon detectors.


Also in particle accelerators where superconducting radio frequency is used niobium thin films which can be obtained by sputtering targets can be used. CERN has conducted pioneering studies in the field of superconducting radio frequency niobium films on copper (Nb/Cu) applied to cavities and successfully implemented this technology.


The superconducting niobium thin films can be also used in digital applications. For example in one of the studies related to this field an 8-bit digital signal processor was fabricated. These devices fabricated with niobium film process are faster and have lower power consumption than semiconductor devices.

Lanthanum Calcium Manganate Sputtering Targets and Applications

Lanthanum manganate is a chemical compound which consists of lanthanum, manganese and oxygen has a perovskite structure. Perovskite oxides have interesting properties such as double exchange mechanism, electronic transport properties and magnetic properties.


The important discovery about perovskite oxide is their colossal magnetoresistance property. These properties that perovskite oxides have make them useful in production of sensors, actuators and devices.


As we mentioned before lanthanum manganate has also perovskite structure and thin film obtained from it show very different structural, magnetic and electronic properties.


Also it is possible to dope basic lanthanum manganate with calcium to have exterior properties. Lanthanum calcium manganate thin films obtained by sputtering targets can be used in magnetic sensors due to the magnetic properties of lanthanum. Also in hard drive reader and memory devices thin films of lanthanum calcium manganate can be used.


Another interesting property of lanthanum calcium manganate is that it shows antibacterial effect. So you can obtain a thin film with lanthanum calcium oxide sputtering targets if you need antibacterial property.


If you need water purification in your system, lanthanum calcium oxide might be the chemical that you are searching for. Lanthanum calcium manganate sputtering targets will help you for water purıfication.

Silicon Undoped Sputtering Targets and Applications

Silicon is a very important material that we use in our everyday life. The importance of usage of silicon is increasing and we have started to see the materials that are made of silicon.


Silicon has very advantages such as being strong, inert and nontoxic. Of course silicone is being used to obtain thin films for various applications. These films combine the excellent mechanical properties of silicon with the patterning simplicity and flexibility of thin-film technology.


First let us explain what the difference between undoped and doped silicon is. Undoped (instrinsic) silicon is a pure form of the silicon as there is no addition of impurity takes place. On the other hand, when a small quantity of tetravalent or pentavalent impurity like Phosphorus (P) or Boron (B) is added in pure silicon, then a doped (extrinsic) silicon is obtained. They show different properties between each other. For example the electrical conductivity of an undoped silicon is low, whereas in doped silicon the electrical conductivity is high.


Now let’s look at the applications of undoped silicon sputtering targets. Undoped silicon layers can be deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition. The most common purpose of using undoped silicon thin films is electrical isolation. To obtain flexible and light weight films silicone sputtering targets will be one the most preferable ones.


In lithium ion batteries a thin film of undoped silicon in carbon-silicon anodes enables a small improvement of energy density. In medical area silicone thin films made of sputtering targets can be preferable for being inert and nontoxic.

The Effect of Graphene on Architecture

Mesoporous 3D architectures of silicon dioxide nanoparticles/nanopowder(SiO2), nickel silicate(NiO3Si), and cobalt silicate(CoO3Si) are for the first time prepared by using reed leafs as a sustainable silica source. Due to the 3D mesoporous architecture, nickel and cobalt silicate allow efficient charge transfer and mass transport, while at the same time buffering the volume changes during ion lithiation/delithiation processes. Especially, the nickel silicate electrode with the mesoporous 3D architecture shows a high specific capacitance, a good rate capability, and cycling stability for electrochemical capacitors.


Graphene Nanoplatelet has been used as an electrode and channel material in electronic devices because of its superior physical properties. Recently, electronic devices have changed from a planar to a complicated three-dimensional (3D) geometry to overcome the limitations of planar devices. The evolution of electronic devices requires that graphene be adaptable to a 3D substrate. It is demonstrated that chemical-vapor-deposited Single Layer Graphene Oxide and Single Layer Graphene can be transferred onto silicon dioxide substrate with a 3D geometry, such as a concave-convex architecture. A variety of silicon dioxide concave-convex architectures were uniformly and seamlessly laminated with graphene using a thermal treatment. The planar graphene was stretched to cover the concave-convex architecture, and the resulting strain on the curved graphene was spatially resolved by confocal Raman spectroscopy; molecular dynamic simulations were also conducted and supported the observations. Changes in electrical resistivity caused by the spatially varying strain induced as the graphene-silicon dioxide laminate varies dimensionally from 2D to 3D were measured by using a four-point probe. The resistivity measurements suggest that the electrical resistivity can be systematically controlled by the 3D geometry of the graphene-silicon dioxide laminate. This 3D graphene-insulator laminate will broaden the range of graphene applications beyond planar structures to 3D materials.

Nanotechnology and Energy

Energy is the blood stream in our modern lives. We consume huge amount of energy, yet most of this energy comes from fossil fuels. Humans have been using fossil fuels as the main source of energy for centuries. This heavy dependence on fossil fuels left us with enormous environmental and consumption issues. These issues need to be solved by finding new methods of producing, transporting and consuming energy. The achievement of secure and long-term energy supply is the biggest challenge in the 21st century. Another challenges include efficient transportation and usage of the produced energy. These challenges can be overcomed by new technologies which can introduce promising solutions. Nanotechnology represents the key which opens the door into anticipative solutions for energy problems. Nanotechnology brings new nanomaterials with extraordinary properties. These properties if applied into energy applications may change the way of energy production and consumption that we know.

Before talking about the possible energy applications that nanotechnology can resolve; let’s explore some of these materials and see how they illustrate extraordinary properties. One of the nanomaterials that exhibited high research interest in the last two decades is carbon nanotubes (CNT). CNTs were discovered in 1991 by Japanese scientist Sumio Iijima. They are tiny tubes that consist of carbon atoms covalently connected in hexagonal cylindrical shapes. There are two types of CNT; single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). CNTs show excellent strength,elasticity, electric and thermal conductivity properties. These properties if applied into energy sector can bring cheaper, easier, and more efficient methods for the production, transportation, and consumption of energy.

Another new nanomaterial that was discovered recently (in 2004) is graphene. Graphene consists of covalently bonded carbon atoms in a hexagonal honeycomb lattice. Like CNT, graphene show excellent physical and chemical properties which makes it very interesting material for energy applications. A lot of studies are conducted to adjust graphene in energy applications. Some of these studies are focused in the efficient transportation and storage of electric energy.

In addition to CNT and graphene, there are various nanoparticles that find outstanding applications in energy field. Nanoparticles are the particles that have size dimensions at the range of 1-100nm. These nanoparticles have high surface areas which increase their chemical activity. Moreover, they exhibit excellent optical and conductivity properties. Harvesting energy from renewable sources such as solar energy is one of the main application where nanoparticles are highly used.

Other materials at the nanoscale show also numerous excellent properties. In addition, energy field is wide and the introduction of nanomaterials can be achieved in different uses. In the following blogs we are going to discover the applications of these nanomaterials in; solar energy, hydrogen technology, energy storage, fuel cells, energy transportation, and energy consumption. We will see how the introduction of the nanomaterials in the mentioned fields could transform the way of our energy consumption.

Graphene is a marvellous material and shows potential as novel anti-cancer therapeutic strategy

Graphene is a marvellous material and shows potential as novel anti-cancer therapeutic strategy !


Cancer starts when cells in our bodies start to reproduce out of control, forming new, abnormal cells. These abnormal cells form lumps, known as tumours. Cancer cells are able to invade other parts of the body, where they settle and grow to form new tumours known as secondary deposits – the original site is known as the primary tumour. The cells spread by getting into the blood or lymph vessels and travelling around the body. Cancer harms the body in a number of ways.


The size of the tumour can interfere with nearby organs or ducts that carry important chemicals. For example, a tumour on the pancreas can grow to block the bile duct, leading to the patient developing obstructive jaundice. A brain tumour can push on important parts of the brain, causing blackouts, fits and other serious health problems. There may also be more widespread problems such as loss of appetite and increased energy use with loss of weight, or changes in the body’s clotting system leading to deep vein thrombosis.


Graphene is one of the most popular material in last decade. There are several application area since graphene has remarkable characteristics. For example, graphene is light, strong, flexible, bendable, high conductive.


Some researchers from The University of Manchester won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2010 thanks to these unique properties of graphene.


Besides physical research, biological researches included graphene and graphene based materials continue in all around the world. Professor Lisanti is from University of Manchester, directs the Manchester Centre for Cellular Metabolism. He stated that cancer stem cells not only possess the ability to give rise to many different tumour cell types but also stay in the body after chemotherapy, radiotheraphy and other complicated surgeries. These type of stem cells are responsible for the spread of cancer within whole body. The process of cancer cells spreading is called metastasis. Main responsible factor for 90% of cancer deaths is metastasis process not actually cancer. Cancer stem cells do not act like other cell types. They can not be affected by chemotherapy, radiotheraphy and drug theraphy. Therefore cancer stem cells play an important role in in the recurrence of tumours after treatment. Due to this unique properties of the cancer stem cells, cancer seems like an unsolvable problem in the world.


Moreover Dr Lisanti stated that graphene oxide material is stable in water and this property means that it can be used in several biomedical applications. Graphene oxide can easily attach or enter the cancer cells and this makes them candidates for designed drug delivery. Furthermore, graphene oxide can be used as an effective anticancer drug. Normally cancer stem cells tend to be make small mass of cells called as a tumor sphere. When graphene oxide applied into this process, cancer stem cells could not form these shape of tumor. On the contrary, graphene oxide forced cancer stem cells to differentiate into non-cancer stem-cells.


This means graphene oxide itself can be used in not only tagging but also treating of cancer.


Scientists are creating targeted cancer therapies using their latest insights into cancer at a molecular level. These treatments block the growth of cancer by interfering with genetic switches and molecules specifically involved in tumour growth and progression. Clinical trials using gene therapy are also underway. This experimental treatment involves adding genetic material into a person’s cells to fight or prevent disease.


Graphene oxide is one of the most promising material for anti cancer theraphy and graphene based anti cancer materials will be more popular in the last decade.


Meet the World’s Fastest Transistor with GRAPHENE!

Graphene is known as the wonder material for today’s technology thanks to its very small size (only one atom thick and considered 2 dimensional), electron mobility and heat transfer properties (is known as having the highest electrical and thermal conductivity), transparency (~%98) and mechanical performance (200 times stronger than steel). It has not many applications in the industry so far because mass production of the material is not yet achieved and its price is still high.


Mass production and low prices for graphene will be achieved soon, so a lot of researchers worldwide has already been studying on the applications of this important material since its discovery (including researcers of important corporations like IBM, Samsung, GE etc.).


IBM corporation is doing some of the leading works for the applications of graphene and they recently created and demonstrated a high speed transistor with this wonder material. It has the highest cut-off frequency achieved so far for any other transistor (100 GigaHertz, frequency for Silicon transistors is only 40 GigaHertz). In addition to its high frequency, this graphene based transistor’s production is also compatible with the ones that are used for Silicon technology. These transistors are produced with the thermal decomposition of the SiC wafer.


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