As all we may know lithium ion batteries include cathode and anode parts. One of the most used material for anode part is graphitic carbon. Graphitic carbon is chosen for long cycle life and low cost. But there are some problems with graphitic carbon such as safety and low lithium ion diffusivity in the graphite lattice.
In the studies related to this field it was found that lithium titanate oxide which has the chemical formula of Li4Ti5O12 can be used as alternative anode material to graphitic carbon. Lithium Titanate Oxide Micron Powder (LTO) for Li-ion Battery Anode shows stable charge/discharge platform and possesses excellent cycling stability and unique safety characteristic owing to its negligible volume change and high redox potential upon Li-ion intercalation/deintercalation. Of course, the studies are going on to improve the performance of lithium titanate oxide as anode materials.
However, coarse lithium titanate shows poor rate performance due to its low electronic conductivity and sluggish lithium ion diffusivity. In some cases, especially when aging at elevated temperature or cycling in a long-term regime, gas generation frequently occurs in lithium titanate-based batteries.
In past decades, many efforts have been devoted to overcoming these problems and signiﬁcant advancements have been achieved, which make lithium titanate viable for practical application in batteries for various electrical energy storage, such as electric/hybridelectric/plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/HEV/PHEV), grid load leveling, integration of renewable energy sources, etc.