Hydroxyapatite which is also known as hydroxylapatite (HA) is a form of a mineral calcium apatite which occurs naturally, the formula of which is Ca5(PO4)3(OH). It is therefore known that the mineral hydroxyapatite is a crystalline formed cell and has two separate structures. Hydroxyapatite is one of the members of the apatite group, which is a complex one. The hydroxyl ions can be alternated by carbonate, chloride or fluoride. Upon heating, it is crystallized and is present in the crystalline form which can then be converted into the powdered form by crushing the crystals of it that is why the pure form of it is in white colour. Although the ones which occur naturally might be present in other colours too, that is brown, yellow or green. A bone mineral which is present in a normal human bone is an altered form of the hydroxyapatite because fifty per cent of it by volume and seventy percent of it by weight is actually the bone mineral comprised of hydroxyapatite. The minute structures of hydroxyapatite are also found in the pineal gland, brain sand and a few other structures of the human body. These are the tiny calcifications of the human body.
Hydroxyapatite powder can be chemically synthesized in multiple different ways. Calcium, phosphorus and hydroxyl ions are the main components of a hydroxyapatite powder. They can be altered in various ways to bring out various shapes and forms of the powder, but the main formula and equation that formulates the process remain the same which are mentioned below respectfully.
It can be formed in solid-state too which later on is converted into the crystalline form and from that is converted into the powdered form to perform various functions for different purposes.
The most prominent property of hydroxyapatite powder is the level of its stability at the time of comparison with the other calcium phosphates. However, HA powder is believed to be that calcium phosphate compound which is the most stable under the influence of physical conditions such as the composition of body fluids, pH and temperature. Following are the exceptional chemical properties of HA powder:
Structure of Hydroxyapatite
One of the excellent property of HA powder is biocompatibility. HA powder enhances the biocompatibility of all the products it is used in.
Another good property of HA powder is bioactivity. All the products or minerals which have HA powder extraction in them speeds up the bioactivity of those products or minerals.
Osteoconductivity too is one of the greatest properties of HA powder. As HA powder can either be transparent or opaque, so osteoconductivity is exceptionally enhanced in it.
HA powder possesses the non-toxic and non-inflammatory nature that is why it can be used for various purposes as it has no harmful, toxic or inflammatory effects on any of the things it is mixed with.
Following are the physical properties of the HA powder:
1)Like all the other ceramics, HA is also very brittle.
2)The usual colours of HA powder are green, grey, red, brown, violet or colourless, but the colour of it depends upon the type of apatite.
3)It can be transparent or opaque.
4)It gets degraded in the solution of 2.0 pH.
Hydroxyapatite powder is used in various fields for various purposes which are mentioned below as it is one of the most preferred minerals in the industry because of its remarkable benefits.
The products such as Johnson’s Aloe and Vitamin E powder are the ones which have HA powder in them. It is to be notified that these make the products help in either moisturizing the skin or softening the skin of the babies. It is also present in the makeup kits as their initial purpose is to provide moisture and softness to the skin. A few rare cases of HA powder being used in the shampoos too came out as to give protection to the dry and dull hair. It proved beneficial in the hair products too. These products are very reliable and are being sold and purchased at a very great rate in the market as they are extremely beneficial, and HA products are one of the main contents that make these products beneficial.
In the field of medical, HA powder is drastically used for unique bodily implantations like hip replacements, dental implants and bone conduction implants. A very fine coating of HA is done on these implants for the protection because this powder contains calcium and phosphorus. Even though, science is making progress in enhancing the credibility of the structure of the bones via replacement because these are very much needed for the proper functioning of a normal human body and if these will be missed out from the implants then there are more chances of the implants being unsuccessful.
Hydroxyapatite powder is also present in another form that is the microcrystalline form, and this form of hydroxyapatite is very much known as a supplement that has a very high rate of absorbing as compared to calcium and is retailed as a bone-building mineral in the powdered form. It is mainly the supplement for calcium and has been derived from the bovine bone. Along with that, there are certain, and countless companies proclaim this that the HA powder used in the supplements is corrupted by the usage of heavy metals as its effective causes have not proved to be well in the field.
Hydroxyapatite powder is also being used in the field of archeology for the reconstruction of the migrants, diets and climatic changes of the human and animal remains. Bone and teeth in their mineral forms play the role of reservoirs of the trace elements, which also include carbon, oxygen and strontium. The hydroxyapatite powder is constructively used for the indication of the diet as in which state it is present, the habits which a human or animal adopt according to the geographical regions or origins and abruptly for that reconsolidation of the previous temperatures and the shifts of the climatic changes.
Hydroxyapatite powder is also being used in the process of chromatography. It is one of the very complex processes and is often also known as mixed mode. It basically represents the attraction and reaction of positive and negative ions which are then converted to ions. For the purpose of purification, HA chromatography’s efficacy cannot be predicted on the basis of physical and chemical properties it holds. For the purpose of elution, the buffers having a high quantity of phosphate or the neutral salt are most preferably used.
Hydroxyapatite powder works as an excellent adsorptive mineral to complete the defluoridation of normal drinking water. This is due to the reason that HA powder can form fluorapatite in a process following three steps only. The mineral HA powder helps in the removal of fluoride ions from the water, and it then replaces those fluoride ions with the hydroxyl ions which actually makes fluorapatite which is incredibly useful in the purification of the contaminated water.
In mammals, humans or primates the hydroxyapatite is present at two different places. One is bone, and the other is teeth.
In bone, the matrix of collagen is sixty-five to seventy percent of the mass which is basically hydroxyapatite. In teeth, the matrix of dentin and enamel are seventy to eighty percent of the mass which is basically hydroxyapatite
All the studies show that the harmful effects associated with the usage of HA powder in all the different fields are very less and are almost unlikely to be recorded. Along with that, the studies also show briefly that the usage of HA powder that is the calcium phosphate nanoparticles are considered very safe for humans. Besides being safe, these products bring ease and efficacy too in the lives of humans so the usage of this mineral should be continued and various other ways should be explored in which humans can make it more beneficial for them.
In conclusion, Hydroxyapatite powder is a very complex and beneficial mineral found from this planet Earth. All the processes and procedures that are carried out in order to bring it out in its most useful forms are complicated in their own sense and require a lot of practice. Once it is presented in its purified and useful forms, it can be served for various helpful purposes, and in almost all sorts of fields, it has its own benefits. Off course there are conceptions like any other thing about HA powder too that it causes some harmful effects as well which are acceptable, but if we look at the brighter side, then we will see how it is so much more beneficial for us. It protects our bones and teeth so impeccably that it is the greatest example of its benefits itself.