Carbon atoms bounded together to form repeated hexagon patterns is called Graphene, and it is considered as 2-d crystal structure. Due to its shape, it has unique properties such as both the strongest, and the lightest material in the world, most conductive, and transparent.
Although the graphene is expensive and relatively hard to manufacture, effective and inexpensive graphene derivatives can be produced. Graphene oxide (GO) is one of these, and it is oxidized form of graphene, so one can make graphene via dispersion of graphene oxide in water and also other solvents. Graphene oxide is not a good conductor even it is considered as electrical insulator, but functionalization can be done depending on the application such as optoelectronics, bio-devices, and drug-delivery systems.